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Volume-1 Issue-12

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Volume-1 Issue-12, November 2013, ISSN: 2319-9598 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Neha Thombare, Pallavi Deshmukh, Simantini Patil, Shailesh Jain

Paper Title:

Personalized Image Search

Abstract: Personalized Search is a feature in which when a user is logged into a account, all of his or her searches on Personal Search are recorded into  Web History. Then, when a user performs a search, the search results are not only based on the relevancy of each web page to the search term, but the service also takes into account what websites the user previously visited through search results to determine which search results to determine for future searches, to provide a more personalized experience. The feature only takes effect after the user has performed several searches, so that it can be calibrated to the user's tastes. Social sharing websites like facebook, twitter, YouTube they are allowing user to comment, tag, like and unlike the shared documents or images. Rapid Increase in the search services for social websites has been developed.

Personalized Search, Tagging, Topic Model.


1.        Learn to Personalized Image Search from the Photo Sharing Websites Jitao Sang, Changsheng Xu, Senior Member, IEEE, Dongyuan Lu
2.        B. Smyth, “A community-based approach to personalizing web search,”Computer, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 42–50, 2007.

3.        Personalized Search on Flickr based on Searcher’s Preference Prediction Dongyuan Lu, Qiudan Li





Y.Shekar, B. Vasunayak, J. Sunil Kumar, A. Sanyasi Rao, Fathima Shireen

Paper Title:

Cryptographic Algorithms Implementation on RISC Processor

Abstract: Security is one of the most important features in data communication. Cryptographic algorithms are mainly used for this purpose to obtain confidentiality and integrity of data in communication. Implementing a cryptographic algorithm on a general purpose processor it results lower throughput and larger power consumption. In this work we propose processor architecture to perform the cryptographic algorithms and also it speed up the encryption and decryption process of data. This processor will perform the cryptographic operations as like general instructions in GPP. The data size of this processor is 32-bit. The architecture of the processor designed using Verilog HDL.

Cryptographic Algorithms, GPP, Verilog.


1.        Jun-hong chen “A High-Performance Unified Field Reconfigurable Cryptographic Processor”. IEEE-2010
2.        Nima Karimpour Darav “CIARP: Crypto Instruction-aware RISC Processor.IEEE-2012”

3.        Antonio H. Zavala “RISC-Based Architecture for Computer Hardware Instruction” IEEE-2011

4.        “Data Encryption Standard” 1999 october 25.

5.        “Advance Encryption Standard” November 26 2001

6.        Imyong Lee, Dongwook Lee, Kiyoung choi, “ODALRISC: A Small, Low power and Configurable 32-bit RISC processor,” International SOC design Conference 2008.

7.        Wayne Wolf, FPGA Based System Design, Prentice Hall, 2005.

8.  National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), "Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), (FIPPUB 197)", November 26, 2001, 
9.        Atri. Rudra, Pradeep k. Dubey, Charanjit S.Jutla, Vijay Kumar, Josyula R.Rao, Pankaj Rahotgi, "Efficient Implementation of Rijndael Encryption with Composite Field Arithmetic," Proceedings of Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (CHES), Vol. 2162,  pp.175-188, 2001.

10.     Rohit Sharma, Vivek Kumar Sehgal, Nitin Nitin1, Pranav Bhasker, Ishita Verma, “Design and Implementation of 64-Bit RISC Processor using   Computer Modeling and Simulation,” Proceedings of UKsim, Vol. 11, pp. 568 – 573, 2009.

11.     R. Uma, “Design and performance analysis of 8-bit RISC Processor using Xilinx tool,” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp.53-58, March-April 2012, ISSN: 2248-9622.

12.     Jean-Luc Beuchat, “FPGA Implementations of the RC6 Block Cipher,’’ Laboratoire de l’Informatique du arall´elisme, Ecole Normale Sup´erieure de Lyon,46, All´ee d’Italie, F–69364 Lyon Cedex 07.

13.     Arturo Diaz-Perez, Nazar A. Saqib, Francisco Rodriguez-Henriquez, ‘‘Implementing Symmetric-Key Cryptosystems on Reconfigurable-Hardware,’’ springer Nov 2006, ISBN : 0387338837.

14.     Imyong Lee, Dongwook Lee, Kiyoung choi, “ODALRISC: A Small, Low power and Configurable 32-bit RISC processor,” International SOC design Conference 2008.

15.     R. Razdan and M.D. Smith, “A High-Performance Micro architecture with Hardware-Programmable Functional Units,” Proceedings of. Micro-27, pp. 172-180, 1994.

16.     Vincent P. Heuring, and Harry F. Jordan, “Computer Systems Design and Architecture,” Second Edition, 6th Dec, 2003, ISBN-10: 0130484407.

17.     Dave Van den Bout “The Practical XILINX Designer Lab Book,” pp.30-31, ISBN 0-13- 095502-7.

18.     XILINX datasheet library, http:// www.xilinx.com/ partinfo/4000.pdf

19.     Jonas Thor, “Evaluation of a reconfigurable computing engine for digital communication Applications,” pp.12-17, ISSN 1402-1617.

20.     Rasset T.L, Niederland R.A, Lane J.H, Geideman W.A “A 32-b RISC Implemented in Enhancement-Mode JFET Ga As,” Vol.3, pp.60-70, 9 Oct 1986.

21.     Dolle.M, Jhand. S, Lehner.W, Muller.O, Schlett.M. “A 32-b RISC/DSP microprocessor with reduced complexity,” Proceedings of journals and magazines, Vol. 32, Issue 7, pp 1056-1066, 06 August 2002.

22.     Buhler, M. Baitinger “VHDL-based development of a 32-bit pipelined RISC processor,” U.G. Stuttgart University, Vol 1, pp. 138-142, 06 August 2002.





Geethanjali Marri, P. Sri Padma, Ch. Ganapathi Reddy

Paper Title:

Conjugate Gradient Based MMSE Filter for Uplink Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Systems

Abstract: Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) compensation is very important for reliable detection of transmitted data in uplink Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) systems. In this paper we proposed a low-complexity CFO compensation algorithm based on the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) criterion for uplink OFDMA systems. The proposed algoritm employs a Conjugate Gradient (CG) method which iteratively finds the MMSE solution. In this paper we are presenting the proposed method by comparing with the existing direct MMSE method and we show that CFO can be compensated with substantially reduced computational complexity by applying the CG method.

Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), Conjugate Gradient (CG).


1.        Cao. Z, Tureli. U, Yu-Dong Yao and Honan. P, “Frequency synchronization for generalized OFDMA uplink,” 2004 IEEE GLOBECOM Proc, Vol. 2, pp. 1071-1075. 
2.        “IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area networks, part 16: air interface for fixed and mobile broadband wireless access systems amendment 2: physical and medium access control layers for combined fixed and mobile operation in licensed bands,” IEEE Std. 802.16e, Feb. 2006.

3.        J. R. Shewchuk, An Introduction to the Conjugate-Gradient Method Without the Agonizing Pain. Carnegie Mellon University, School of Computer Science, 1994.

4.        K. Etemad, “Overview of mobile WiMAX technology and evolution,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, pp. 31–40, Oct. 2008.

5.        Kilbom Lee, Sang-Rim Lee, Sung-Hyun Moon and Inkyu Lee, “MMSE-based CFO compensation for uplink OFDMA systems with conjugate gradient,” IEEE Trans.Wireless Commun., vol.11, AUG 2012,  pp. 2767-2775.

6.        Michele Moreli, Jay Kuo. C, “Synchronization techniques for orthogonal frequency division multiple access,” IEEE Proc. Vol.95, no.7, July 2007, pp.1394-1427.

7.        Samuel C.Yang, “ OFDMA system analysis and design,” pp.1-92.

8.        Sreedhar. D and Chockalingam. A, “ MMSE receiver for multiuser interference cancellation in uplink OFDMA,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol.6, Nov. 2008, pp. 2125-2129.





Sreenivasa Reddy Mula

Paper Title:

Power Factor Correction

Abstract: In this paper, a new parallel-connected single phase power factor correction (PFC) topology using flyback converter in parallel with forward converter is proposed to improve the input power factor with simultaneously output voltage regulation taking consideration of current harmonic norms. Paralleling of converter modules is a well-known technique that is often used in medium-power applications to achieve the desired output power by using smaller size of high frequency transformers and inductors. The proposed approach offers cost effective, compact and efficient AC-DC converter by the use of parallel power processing.Forward converter primarily regulates output voltage with fast dynamic response and it acts as master which processes 60% of the power. Flyback converter with AC/DC PFC stage regulates input current shaping and PFC, and processes the remaining 40% of the power as a slave. A parallel-connected interleaved structure offers smaller passive components, less loss even in continuous conduction inductor current mode, and reduced volt-ampere rating of DC/DC stage converter. MATLAB/SIMULINK is used for implementation and simulation results show the performance improvement.

Ac-dc converter, pwm, pfc, simulink, matlab.


1.        R. Redl: “Power-factor correction in single-phase switching-mode power supplies-an overview”, Int. J. Electronics, Vol. 77, No. 5, pp. 555-582, 1994.
2.        P. Tonti, G. Spiazzi: “Harmonic Limiting Standards and Power Factor Correction Techniques”. Tutorial presented at the European Power Electronics Conference (EPE), Sevilla (Spain), September 1995.

3.        R. Redl, L Balogh : "RMS, DC, Peak and Harmonic Currents in High- Frequency Power-Factor Correctors with Capacitive Energy Storage". Proceeding of APEC ’92, pp. 533-540.

4.        J. Zhang, M.M. Jovanovic, F.C. Lee: “Comparison between CCM single-stage and two-stage boost PFC converters”. Proceeding of APEC '99, pp.335-41.

5.        Chow, M.H.L.; Siu, K.W.; Tse, C.K.; Yim-Shu Lee: “A novel method for elimination of line-current harmonics in single-stage PFC switching regulators”. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol.13, (no.1), Jan. 1998. pp.75-83.





Raghava Yathiraju

Paper Title:

Acoustic Echo Cancellation Using Conventional Adaptive Algorithms

Abstract: An adaptive filter is a filter that self-adjusts its transfer function according to an optimization algorithm driven by an error signal.Because of the complexity of the optimization algorithms,most adaptive filters are digital filters.Adaptive filtering constitutes one of the core technologies in digital signal processing and finds numerous application areas in science as well as in industry. Adaptive filtering techniques are used in a wide range of applications, including, adaptive noise cancellation, echo cancellation, adaptive equalization and adaptive beamforming. Acoustic echo cancellation is a common occurrence in today’s telecommunication systems. The signal interference caused by acoustic echo is distracting to users and causes a reduction in the quality of the communication. This paper focuses on the use of Least Mean Square (LMS), Normalised Least Mean Square (NLMS), Variable Step-Size Least Mean Square (VSLMS), Variable Step-Size Normalised Least Mean Square (VSNLMS) and Recursive Least Square (RLS) algorithms to reduce this unwanted echo, thus increasing communication quality.

Adaptive filters, Echo, Adaptive algorithms, Echo cancellation, Acoustic echo cancellation.


1.        Homana, I.; Topa, M.D.; Kirei, B.S.; “Echo cancelling using adaptive  algorithms”, Design and Technology of Electronics Packages, (SIITME) 15th International Symposium., pp. 317-321, Sept.2009.
2.        Eneman, K.; Moonen, M.; “Iterated partitioned block frequency-domain adaptive filtering for acoustic echo cancellation,” IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing, vol. 11, pp. 143-158, March 2003.

3.        G. Egelmeers, P. Sommen, and J. de Boer, “Realization of an acoustic echo canceller on a single DSP,” in Proc. Eur. Signal Processing Conf. (EUSIPCO96), Trieste, Italy, pp. 33–36, Sept. 1996.

4.        Soria, E.; Calpe, J.; Chambers, J.; Martinez, M.; Camps, G.; Guerrero, J.D.M.;  “A novel approach to introducing adaptive filters based on the LMS algorithm and its variants”, IEEE Transactions, vol. 47, pp. 127-133, Feb 2008.

5.        Krishna, E.H.; Raghuram, M.; Madhav, K.V; Reddy, K.A; “Acoustic echo cancellation using a computationally efficient transform domain LMS adaptive filter,” 2010 10th International Conference on Information sciences signal processing and their applications (ISSPA), pp. 409-412, May 2010.

6.        E. Soria, J. Calpe, J. Guerrero, M. Martínez, and J. Espí, “An easy demonstration of the optimum value of the adaptation constant in the LMS algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Educ., vol. 41, pp. 83, Feb. 1998.

7.        D. Morgan and S. Kratzer, “On a class of computationally efficient rapidly converging, generalized NLMS algorithms,” IEEE Signal Processing Lett., vol. 3, pp. 245–247, Aug. 1996

8.        Tandon, A.; Ahmad, M.O.; Swamy, M.N.S.; “An efficient, low-complexity, normalized LMS algorithm for echo cancellation”, IEEE workshop on Circuits and Systems, 2004. NEWCAS 2004, pp. 161-164, June 2004.

9.        Lee, K.A.; Gan, W.S; “Improving convergence of the NLMS algorithm using constrained subband updates,” Signal Processing Letters IEEE, vol. 11, pp. 736-739, Sept. 2004.            

10.     D.L. Duttweiler, “Proportionate Normalized Least Mean Square Adaptation in Echo Cancellers,” IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Processing, vol. 8, pp. 508-518, Sept. 2000.

11.     Sristi, P.; Lu, W.-S.; Antoniou, A.;”A new variable step-size LMS algorithm and its application in subband adaptive filtering for echo cancellation,” The 2001 IEEE International Synposium on Circuits and Systems, 2001. ISCAS 2001, vol. 2, pp. 721-724, May 2001.

12.     Tingchan, W.; Chutchavong, V.; Benjangkaprasert, C.; “ Performance of A Robust Variable Step-Step LMS Adaptive Algorithm for multiple Echo Cancellation in Telephone Network,” SICE-ICASE, 2006. International Joint Conference, pp. 3173-3176, Oct 2006.

13.     Li Yan; Wang Xinan; “A Modified VSLMS Algorithm,” The 9th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology, vol. 1, pp. 615-618, Feb 2007.

14.     J. B. Evans, P. Xue, and B. Liu, “Analysis and implementation of variable step size adaptive algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 41, pp. 2517– 2535, Aug. 1993.

15.     Paleologu, C.; Benesty, J.; Grant, S.L.; Osterwise, C.; “Variable step-size NLMS algorithms for echo cancellation” 2009 Conference Record of the forty-third Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers., pp. 633-637, Nov 2009.

16.     Ahmed I. Sulyman and Azzedine Zerguine, "Echo Cancellation Using a Variable Step-Size NLMS Algorithm", Electrical and Computer Engineering Department Queen's University.

17.     J. Benesty, H. Rey, L. Rey Vega, and S. Tressens, “A nonparametric VSS NLMS algorithm,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 581–584, Oct. 2006.

18.     S.C. Douglas, “Adaptive Filters Employing Partial Updates,” IEEE Trans.Circuits SYS.II, vol. 44, pp. 209-216, Mar 1997.        

19.     Jun Xu; Wei-ping Zhou; Yong Guo; “A Simplified RLS Algorithm and Its Application in Acoustic Echo Cancellation,” 2nd International conference on Information Engineering and Computer Science, pp. 1 4, Dec.2010.

20.     Mohammed, J.R.; Singh, G.; “An Efficient RLS Algorithm For Output-Error Adaptive IIR Filtering And Its Application To Acoustic Echo Cancellation,” IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Image and Signal Processing, 2007. CIISP 2007, pp. 139-145, April 2007.

21.     J. Shynk, “Frequency-domain and multirate adaptive filtering,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag., vol. 9, pp. 15– 37,  Jan. 1992.

22.     D. L. Duttweiler, “A twelve-channel digital echo canceller,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 647–653, May 1978.





Omar Turath Tawfeeq

Paper Title:

THD Reduction of A Current Source Rectifier-DC Motor Drive Using Single Tuned Filters

Abstract: A current source rectifier (CSR) is commonly used to supply a DC Motor with variable voltage for variable speed applications. A study of THD Reduction using single tuned filters employed to obtain the required low harmonic distortion and nearly unity power factor in A.C supply current over a wide range of operating shaft speed. The external performances of a three-phase CSR-fed separately excited DC motor drive such as power factor, harmonics factor, and efficiency  using sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) control technique are obtained for different speeds and modulation indexes. Separately excited DC motors with armature voltage control provides constant torque operation. The effectiveness of the proposed system (2.3-kW 13A DC motor drive) was verified through computer Matlab simulations.

Current source rectifier, DC Drive, THD Reduction, Single tuned filters, SPWM.


1.        H.F. Bilgin°+, K.N. Köse°, G. Zenginobuz°, M. Ermis°+, E. Nalçaci°+, I. Çadirci°+and H. Köse* , “A Unity Power Factor Buck Type PWM Rectifier for Medium/High Power DC Motor Drive Applications", °TÜBITAK-METU Information Technologies and Electronics Research Institute TR06531 Ankara-Turkey, (C) 2001 IEEE.
2.        SESHAGIRI R. DORADLA, C. NAGAMANI, AND SUBHANKAR SANYAL“A Sinusoidal Pulsewidth Modulated Three-Phase AC to DC Converter-Fed DC Motor Drive ”, IEEE Transactions On Industry Applications, Vol. IA-21, No. 6, November/December 1985.

3.        Hazım Faruk Bilgin, K. Nadir Köse, Gürkan Zenginobuz, Muammer Ermis¸, Erbil Nalçacı, Is¸ık Çadırcı,, and Hasan Köse “A Unity-Power-Factor Buck-Type PWM Rectifier for Medium / High - Power DC Motor Drive Applications”, IEEE Transactions On Industry Applications, Vol. 38, No. 5, September/October 2002

4.        Seema P. Diwan, Dr. H. P. Inamdar, and Dr. A. P. Vaidya“ Simulation Studies of Shunt Passive Harmonic Filters: Six Pulse Rectifier Load . Power Factor Improvement and Harmonic Control”, ACEEE Int. J. on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 02, No. 01, Feb 2011.

5.        Rajashekara, K., Bhat, A.K.S., Bose, B.K. “Power Electronics” The Electrical Engineering Handbook Ed. Richard C. Dorf Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 2000.

6.        Ersoy Kelebekler, Ali Bekir Yildiz, “Analysis of Passive and Active Filters Using Modified Nodal Approach”, Compatibility in Power Electronics, CPE ’07, Gdansk, Issue Date: May 29-June 1 2007, IEEE.

7.        Alexandre B. Nassif, WilsunXu, and WalmirFreitas, “An Investigation on the Selection of Filter Topologies for Passive Filter Applications”, IEEE Vol. 24, No. 3, July, 2009.

8.        Bashar Abbas Fadeel , “Analysis and Design of Passive Filter to Reduce Line Current Harmonics for Controlled Rectifiers”, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Mosul, 2011. (in Arabic).

9.        W. SHEPHERD and P.ZAND, “Energy Flow And Power Factor In Nonsinusoidal Circuits”, First published, Cambridge University Press, 1979.

10.     IEEE Standard 1459-2000, “IEEE Trial-Use Standard Definitions for the Measurement of Electric Power Quantities Under Sinusoidal, Nonsinusoidal, Balanced, or Unbalanced Conditions”, 2000, IEEE.

11.     Jos Arrillaga and Neville R. Watson, “Power System Harmonics”, second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, England, 2003.

12.     Muhammad H. Rashid, “Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices and Applications”, Third Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, U.S.A, 2004.





Sainath A. Waghmare, Chandan D. Chaudhari, Sumit N. Gavande

Paper Title:

Numerical Analysis and Experimental Failure Mode Determination of Composite T -Joint

Abstract: The use of fibre composite materials in more demanding roles is increasing due to increased performance requirements in various applications. One type of joint in a sandwich panels in superstructure is a T-joint. An existing design consists of panels joined by filler material and overlaminates of the same thickness as the skin laminates. The aim of the research was to determine the methodology to predict the failure mode of the T-Joint under a pull-off tensile loading using Finite Element model. The outcome of the research was that the Finite Element (FE) simulations were used in conjunction to determine the failure mechanism of the T-Joint in the presence of disbonds in the critical location. Stress distributions are investigated by both laboratory tests and numerical modeling, and design criteria for core pieces are presented.

Sandwich panels, Overlaminates, T-joint, Core pieces, FRP.


1.        Ferry Dharmawan. “The structural integrity and damage tolerance of composite t joint in naval vessel”, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, November 2008.
2.        Toftegaard H, Lystrup A. “Design and test of lightweight sandwich Tjointfor naval ships”. Compos A ApplSciManufact 2005;36:1055–65.

3.        Toftegaard, H &Lystrup, A, “Design and test of lightweight sandwich Tjoint for naval ships”, Composites Part A: AppliedScience and Manufacturing ACMC/SAMPE Conference on Marine Composites (MarComp) 2003, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1055-1065.

4.        Shenoi RA, Hawkins GL. “Influence of material and geometry variations on the behaviour of bonded tee connections in FRP ships.” 
Composites 1992;23:335–45.
5.        D.W. Zhou , L.A. Louca  and M. Saunders, “Numerical simulation of sandwich T-joints under dynamic loading”Composites: Part B 39 (2008) 973–985  23 December 2007

6.        Efstathios E. Theotokoglou,“FAILURE MODES IN COMPOSITE JOINTS A FINITE ELEMENT  STUDY”The National Technical University of AthensGR-157 73 Athens, Greece

7.        ST. JOHN, N, GRABOVAC, I, GELLERT, (2000) “Fiber-resin composite research in support of current and future Royal Australian Navy Vessels.” International conference Construction Latest Development, London.

8.        Yadav S.S. and Chhapkhane N. K., “Design and Testing of Lightweight sandwich T-joint of composite material using FEA and experimental technique”, ISSN: 2278-0181, IJERT, Vol. 1Issue 6, August- 2012.

9.        KIRSHAN K. CHAWLA ,”Composite Materials‟, Springer publications, Second Edition ,  reprint (2006).

10.     David Cripps, Gurit, http://www.gurit.com

11.     M.D. Banea and L.F.M da Silva, “Adhesively bonded joints in composite materials: An overview”, DOI: 10.1243/14644207JMDA219, Institution of Mechanical Engineers vol.223, 2009.

12.     Christian Berggreen, Christian Lundsgaard-Larsen, Kasper Karlsen, Claus Jenstrup and Brian Hayman, “Improving performance of polymer fiber vessels-Part I: Design aspects”, 16th  International Conference On Composite Materials, Kyoto Japan, 2007.

13.     S.M.R. Khalili and A.Ghaznavi, “Numerical analysis of adhesively bonded T-joints with structural sandwiches and study of design parameters”,  Elsevier, International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 31 (2011) 347–356, February 2011.

14.     www.azom.com

15.     X.X. Dai and J.Y. Richard Liew, “Fatigue performance of lightweight steel_concrete_steel sandwich systems”, Elsevier, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 66 ,256_276, July 2009.

16.     http://www.dnv.com

17.     Keun-Il Song, Ji-Young Choi, Jin-HweKweon, Jin-Ho Choi and Kwang-Soo Kim, “An experimental study of the insert joint strength of composite sandwich structures”, Elsevier, Composite Structures 86 (2008) 107–113, 2008

18.     http://www.cetec.demon.co.uk

19.     A.P. Mouritz, E. Gellert, P. Burchill and K. Challis, “ Review of advance composite structure for Naval ships and submarines ”, Elsevier, Composite Structure 53 (2001) 21-41, 2001.

20.     E. Bozhevolnaya, A. Lyckegaard and O.T. Thomsen, “Novel design of foam core junctions in sandwich panels”, Elsevier, Composites: Part B 39 (2008) 185–190.





Kushal M. L, V. Venkateswarlu

Paper Title:

Design and Implementation of Phase Modulation Using PLL for Polar Transmitter

Abstract: In this paper the phase modulation of polar transmitter has been implemented. The circuit for implementing phase modulation consists of Phase Lock Loop (PLL), Sigma Delta Modulator (SDM) and differentiator. The input signal is applied at the differentiator which will convert phase component to the frequency of the signal. The obtained frequency signal is given to the SDM which will convert the analog signal to the digital signals. The SDM should have four bits of resolution, equivalently 36 dB signal-to-noise-and-distortion-ratio (SNDR) for a 200 kHz bandwidth. For supply voltages from 2.5 V to 3 V, the current supply is desired to be less than 20 mA. The PLL consists of the reference signal of 125MHz, and output voltage around 2-3GHz with the VCO gain of 0.277GHz/V. The circuit of PLL, SDM and differentiator are implemented on the Cadence Virtuoso platform.

Polar transmitter, phase modulation, Phase lock loop, Sigma delta modulator, differentiator.


1.        John Groe., “Polar Transmitters for Wireless Communications,” IEEE Communications, pp. 58-63, Sept. 2007.
2.        G. Brenna et al., “A 2-GHz Carrier Leakage Calibrated Direct-Conversion WCDMA, 2002.

3.        Transmitter in 0.13-mm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, pp. 1253–62, Aug. 2004,

4.        T. Sowlati et al., “Quad-band GSM/GPRS/EDGE Polar Loop Transmitter,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits, pp. 2179–89, Dec. 2004.

5.        S Cripps, “Advanced Techniques in RF Power Amplifier Design,” Norwell, MA: Artech House, 2002

6.        Michael Youssef, Alireza Zolfaghari, Behnam Mohammadi, Hooman Darabi and Asad A., “A Low-Power GSM/EDGE/WCDMS Polar Transmitter in 65-nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits, pp. 3061-3074, Dec. 2011.

7.        T. A. D. Riley, M.A. Copeland. and T. A. Kwasniewski, “Delta-Sigma modulation in fractional frequency synthesis,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits, vol. 28, no. 5, pp 553-559, May 1993.

8.        J.Groe, “Highly Linear Phase Modulation,” US patent 10/420,952.

9.        B.Razavi, “Monolithic Phase-Locked Loops and Clock-Recovery Circuits”, IEEE Press, 1996.

10.     J. Maneatis, “Self-Biased, High-Bandwidth, Low-Jitter 1-to-4096 Multiplier Clock Generator PLL”, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 38, no.11, pp. 1795-1803. Nov. 2003.

11.     F. Gardner, “Charge-pump phase-lock loops,” IEEE Trans. Communications., vol COM-28, no. 11, pp 1849-1858, Nov. 1980.

12.      “Gate-diffusion input (GDI)—A novel power efficient method for digital circuits: A design methodology,” presented at the 14th Int. ASIC/SOC Conf., Washington, DC, Sept. 2001.

13.     Arkadiy Morgenshtein, Alexander Fish, and Israel A. Wagner., “Gate-Diffusion Input (GDI): A Power-Efficient Method for Digital Combinatorial Circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) systems, vol. 10, no. 5,pp. 566-581 October 2002.

14.     Chang, B., Park, J., & Kim, W. “A 1.2 GHz CMOS dual modulus prescaler using new dynamic D-type flip-flop”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol 31(5), pp. 749–752, 1996

15.     Larsson, P., “High-speed architecture for a programmable frequency divider and a dual-modulus prescaler”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 31(5), pp.744–748, 1996

16.     Yang, C.-Y., Dehng, G.-K., Hsu, J.-M., & Liu, S.-I, “New dynamic flip-flops for high-speed dual-modulus prescaler”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33(10), pp. 1568–1571, 1998.

17.     Chi, B., & Shi, B., “New implementation of phases witching technique and its applications to GHz dual-modulus prescaler”, IEE Proceedings of the Circuits Devices and Systems, vol. 150(5), pp. 429–433, 2003

18.     Yang, D.-J., & Kenneth, K. O., “A 14-GHz 256/257 dual modulus prescaler with secondary feedback and its application to a monolithic CMOS 10.4-GHz phase-locked loop”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 52(2), pp. 461–468, 2004.

19.     Perrott, M. H., Tewksbury III, T. L., & Sodini, C. G. “A 27-mW CMOS fractional-N synthesizer using digital compensation for a 2.5-Mb/s GFSK modulation”, IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, vol. 32(12), pp. 2048–2060, 1997

20.     Zarei, H., Shoei, O., Fakhrai, S. M., & Zakeri, M. M., “A 1.4 GHz/2.7 V programmable frequency divider for DRRS standard in 0.6lm CMOS process”, IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2000

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G. Anuradha

Paper Title:

Self Automated Tool in Vehicular System That Identifies the Air Pollution and the Future of E-Governs

Abstract: Air pollution is a major issue that we face today. Pollution zone in during earlier century was low but keeps growing towards the current. Studies revealed the fact the concentration in organic and inorganic toxic elements keeps growing depending upon the region and vehicle type. There is a growing demand for the environmental pollution monitoring and control systems. Gas sensors help to detect gas molecules and the concentration of the gas analytical methods of identifying the gases has greater disadvantage than with fairly accurate and selective gas reading.

Embedded control, Monitoring system, Remote monitoring, sensor.


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