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Volume-1 Issue-11

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Volume-1 Issue-11, October 2013, ISSN: 2319-9598 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Sharad R. Mahajan

Paper Title:

Air Pollution from I. C. Engines & It’s Control

Abstract: The rise in civilization is closely related to the improvement is transportation. In the development of transportation, internal combustion engine play an important role of petrol and diesel engine. This problem is increasing day by day with increasing pollution, & urbanization air pollution has been identified as one of the potential source of air pollution. The Petrol and diesel engine power automobile achieve symbol of our modern technological society but in recent time. The I.C. engine powered vehicle has come under heavy attack due to various problems created by them. One of the various problems is air pollution and this pollution problem facing the developing countries. First of all we know about pure air means it is a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen with some rare gases argon, neon etc. Now air pollution is defined as the addition of any material which will have a dangerous effect of our planet to our atmosphere. This pollution of air problem is very serious such than a one metrologies predicted recently that air could put an end to life on this planet within century. So our aim is to find out the air pollutant from petrol as well as diesel engine and control those pollutants so that we minimize the pollution problem. The main pollutant from automobile is carbon monoxide (CO), un burnt hydrocarbons (HC). Oxides of nitrogen and lead and particular emissions. Automobiles are not only sources of air pollution but also other sources like electric generation power stations (Which mainly emit sulpher oxides and nitrogen oxides) and industries processing. In advanced countries like USA the air pollutant by automobile is about 50% of total air pollutant. It is true that the pollutant from car say half kgf for single days driving. Day by day the pollutions are increased due to number of vehicles increases and hence air pollution by vehicles are also increased. The paper deals with the types of pollutants, its sources and how to control emissions from an automobile.

Internal combustion engine, air pollution, carbon monoxide, Oxides of nitrogen,  unburnt hydrocarbons.


1.        I.C.  Engines by Mathur and Sharma
2.        I.C.  Engines by F. P. Obert

3.        Auto India Journal

4.        Motor Vehicle Act 1988

5.        Central Motor Vehicle Rules 1989






Chetan Sheth, B. R. Parekh, L. M. Manocha, Parul Sheth

Paper Title:

Influence of Conductive Carbon Black from Waste Rubber Tire on Electrical and Mechanical Response of Polymer Composites

Abstract: The aim of this work has been to assess the influence of the conductive filler loading which is Carbon black from waste rubber tire into a polymer matrix such as epoxy resin on the electrical and mechanical properties of the composite. The attention was focused on a possible percolation effect due to the increasing conductive filler loading on DC electrical conductivity and the effect on bulk hardness and micro hardness with enhanced electrical and mechanical properties. Electrical and mechanical tests were performed on specimens showing an increased electrical conductivity along with bulk hardness and micro hardness of the composite with increasing filler loading. The electrical percolation threshold is found at low weight percentage of filler loading. The percentage weight loading of the carbon black ranged from 1% to 15%. The most notable feature of the present work is that we found a correlation of the percolation threshold concentration (Øc), which is detected from the DC electrical conductivity with micro hardness. This paper reports the DC electrical conductivity, bulk hardness and micro-hardness properties of composites with different amounts of filler content. Experimental measurements and microscopic observations of the epoxy composites are discussed in detail. The optical images also revealed that at critical filler concentration (Øc) carbon black particles form the conductive network. Thanks to a sensitive measurement technique using high resistance electrometer, we are able to measure the accurate DC electrical conductivity.

Polymer matrix, composites, conductive fillers, DC conductivity, bulk hardness, micro hardness, epoxy resin, carbon black, percolation threshold, morphology.


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Vaibhav R, S. Sai Bharathwaj

Paper Title:

Wireless Power Transmission with Solar Power Satellite

Abstract: Space-based, solar power generation may become an important source of energy in the 21st Century since energy demand continues to grow along with worldwide concerns over fossil fuel pollution, the safety of nuclear power and waste, and the impact of carbon-burning fuels on global warming. According to a study by the Space Studies Institute (SSI), over 99 percent of the materials needed for building solar power satellites (SPS) can be obtained from Lunar materials. This would reduce the cost of SPS construction by almost 97 percent compared to the alternative of use materials launched from Earth. The objective of this paper is to distribute the power to house hold by efficient means when compared to current trend. It says that power can be generated by solar energy directly by sending a satellite of solar panels so that they get the maximum power generated from it and send it to earth so that the same process can be used in our country to supply electricity to households which reduces the usage of wires and greatly prevent power theft and drastic energy wastage.

Space-based, solar power generation, alternative of use materials launched from Earth.


1.        Wireless Power Transmission for Solar Power Satellite (SPS) (Second Draft by N. Shinohara, GAtech)
2.        Space solar power library( National space society)

3.        MIT Institute Archives & Special Collections Resource for Energy Research,The Peter E. Glaser Papers, 1944-2000

4.        Wireless communication by Molish.

5.        Wireless Power Transmission for Solar Power Satellite,T.S. Hasarmani,Department of Electrical Engineering, Bharati Vidyapeeth University’s College of Engineering,  Pune  411043

6.        Solar Power Satellite Development: Advances in Modularity and Mechanical Systems,W. Keith Belvin, John T. Dorsey, and Judith J. Watson NASA Langley Research Center.

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8.        www.wirelessindia.com.

9.        Landis, Geoffrey A. and Westerlund Larry H., Sverdrup Technology,Inc., NASA Lewis Research enter, and Satellite Communications Consultants, Rockwille, MD; Laser Beamed Power Applications, AF-92-0600

10.     Cataldo, Robert L., NASA Glenn Research Center, Power System Evolution: Mars Robotic Outposts 10 Human Exploration, A01-40217, AIAA Space 2001 Albuquerque, Mexico .

11.     Wireless power transmission technology development and demonstrations, Weber, K.H. ; Foth, W.P. ; Foth, H.J. ; Schafer, C.

12.     Wireless power transmission: the key to solar power satellites, Nansen, R.H. Solar Space Ind., USA






Kaustubh Dilip Patil, Uday R. Patil, Firoj U. Pathan

Paper Title:

Renewable Train and Railway Station

Abstract: We propose an electricity supply system suitable for public transportation .In this system, solar cells are installed on the roof of the platform. Wind turbines and water wheels are built around the station. Electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are installed at the station, and EDLCs are always charged by renewable energy. EDLCs are also mounted on the railcar. When the railcar stops at the station, EDLCs of the railcar are rapidly charged from EDLCs of the station. The battery driven light rail vehicle developed by Railway Technical Research Institute consumes the electricity of 2.5kWh per kilometer. Assuming that interval between stations is 500m; a railcar needs 1.3kWh to reach the next station. If we assume that railcars arrive and depart every 10 minutes, and railcars are operated for 18 hours a day, the power generation capacity of 99,000kWh is necessary at each station in one year. The quick social economic development of Vietnam stimulates great demand of quality as well as quantity on transport service by the increasingly growing needs of customer for transportation. The railway passenger transport is currently still an important branch of a country’s transport system because it is safer, more eco-friendly and much more efficient in comparison to another means. However, the increasing of the number of passengers is the main causes of fast increasing waste amount from the rail service. The aim of this paper is to study how the organic waste from rail service is managed and treated today by the Vietnam railways. The paper ends with some proposal solutions for treating and disposing of organic waste by applying renewable energy technologies for climate change mitigation to protect human health and the environment. 

Renewable energy, Solar energy, Wind energy, Biogas system.


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7.        Kameya, T., Suzuki, G., Harada, Y. & Katsuma, H.,Proposal of LRT Using Renewable Energy, SOLAR WORLD CONGRESS 2011, International Solar Energy Society, Kassel, Germany, August 2011

8.        Kameya, T., Suzuki, G. & Katsuma, H., Proposal of Suitable LRT for Okinawa Using Natural Energy, THE 4TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT, Organizing Committee on LRT WORKSHOP 2010, Okinawa, Japan,November 2010

9.        Kameya, T., Suzuki, G., Seki, K. & Katsuma, H., Proving Experiment Concerning LRT That Runs by Renewable Energy, PROCEEDINGS OF JSES/JWEA JOINT CONFERENCE, pp. 223–224, Japan Solar Energy Society and Japan Wind Energy Association, Wakkanai, Japan, September 2011

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17.     Suzuki, H., Hon-nami, K., Yoshimura, Y. & Obara,H., Bio-hydrogen procurement for solar hydrogen car : An attempt of screening microorganism to,degrade cellulosic biomass as molasses substitute, 62TH SBJ ANNUAL MEETING, p. 157, The Society for Biotechnology, Japan, Miyazaki, Japan, October 2010

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20.     Müller, C.  2007.  Anaerobic Digestion of Biodegradable Solid Waste in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.  Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science, Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries(http://www.eawag.ch/forschung/sandec/publikationen/swm/dl/Anaerobic_Digestion_low_resolution.pdf, retrieved on 2012-9-08)

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Chirag J. Shah, Vyom B. Pathak, Rushabh A. Shah

Paper Title:

A Study of Future Trend for Sustainable Development by Incorporation of Supplementary Cementitious Material’s

Abstract: The key area of interest of present world is about the preservation of environment, cost effective and sustainable development in sector of engineering. This paper comprises of detailed study of major Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) commonly used and new emerging materials as a replacement of natural resources used for construction activity in Indian context. In a general way we can define concrete as a mixture of Portland cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water. The most important cementitious material in concrete is Portland cement. Today, most concrete mixtures contain supplementary cementitious materials that make up a portion of the cementitious component in concrete. These materials are generally byproducts from other processes or natural materials. They may or may not be further processed for use in concrete. Some of these materials are called Pozzolana, which by themselves do not have any cementitious properties, but when used with Portland cement, react to form cementitious compounds. For use in concrete, supplementary cementitious materials, sometimes referred to as mineral admixtures, need to meet requirements of established standards. They may be used individually or in combination in concrete.

Egg Shell (ES), Pozzocrete, Quartz Sand (QS), Rice Husk Ash (RHA), SCM (Supplementary Cementitious Materials), Saw Dust Ash (SDA).


1.        Abhilash Shukla, C. K. Singh and Arbind Kumar Sharma, “Study of the Properties of Concrete By Partial Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement By Rice Husk Ash”, International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, October 2011, pp. 965-968.
2.        Detwiler, R.J., J.I. Bhatty, J.I., and S. Bhattacharja. 1996. “Supplementary Cementing Materials for Use in Blended Cements”. RD112. Skokie, IL: Portland cements Association.

3.        Hiren A. Rathod and Jayeshkumar Pitroda, “A Study of Future Trend for Sustainable Development by Incorporation of SCM’s”, IJSR - International Journal of Scientific Research, Volume: 2, Issue: 2, Feb 2013, ISSN No 2277 – 8179.

4.        http:// Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC)

5.        http://www.pozzocrete.co.in

6.        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/quartz .sand

7.        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/quartzsand

8.        IS 1727-1967: “Methods of test for pozzolanic materials”.

9.        M. Mageswari and b. Vidivelli, “The Use Of Sawdust Ash As Fine Aggregate Replacement In Concrete”, Journal Of Environmental Research And Development Vol. 3 No. 3, January-March 2009

10.     Okonkwo, U. N.; Odiong, I. C. And Akpabio, E. E., “The Effects of Eggshell Ash on Strength Properties of Cement-Stabilized Lateritic”, International Journal Of Sustainable Construction Engineering & Technology (ISSN: 2180-3242) Vol. 3, Issue 1, 2012.

11.     Paya, J., Monzo, J., Borrachero, M. V., and Mora, E. P.                 “Mechanical treatment of fly ash. Part I: Physical-chemical characterization of ground fly ashes.” Cement Concrete Res., 25_7 1469 – 1479 (1995).

12.     Rushabh A. Shah, Jayeshkumar Pitroda “Pozzocrete: Modern Material Partially Replaced with Cement in Mortar”, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE), ISSN: 2278-3075, pg. no. 105-108, Volume-2, Issue-3, February 2013.

13.     R. Bhaumik, N. K. Mondal, B. Das , P. Roy, K. C. Pal, C. Das, A. Banerjee, And J. K. Datta, “Eggshell Powder As An Adsorbent For Removal Of Fluoride From Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic And Thermodynamic Studies”, ISSN: 0973-4945; Coden Ecjhao E-Journal Of Chemistry 2012, 9(3), 1457-1480.






Mina Hojjati

Paper Title:

Face Recognition Based on Local Image Descriptor and Non-linear Features Extraction

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce EABF (Extraction Analysis of Bsif Features) new method to face recognition based on extraction and analysis of binary sif features (BSIF). In our proposed algorithm, FABF eliminates some objections that led to many problems in the previous algorithms, such as a large query space and different quality and the size of images due to different time conditions for imaging and it removes the disadvantages of ELPDA (Nearby Local Discriminating Analysis) methods as a between-class-Scatter by using the Scatter matrix. This matrix introduces and updates the nearest neighbors to the outer class (K) through the samples. In addition, one of the advantages of the EABF is the high-speed face recognition by reducing the size of feature matrix and using NLPCA (Non-Linear Locality Preserving Analysis). Finally, the experiments results on the FERET data base indicate the impact of proposed method on the face recognition.

Face Recognition, Non-linear Features, Linear Features, Local Image Descriptor.


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Poonam S. Sutar, S. C. Potnis, S. K.  Bhor, Vinayak Sutar

Paper Title:

Response of Elevated Liquid Storage Steel Tank with Variable Frequency Pendulum Isolator

Abstract: The seismic response of liquid storage steel tanks with the variable frequency pendulum isolator (VFPI) is compared with that of the same liquid storage steel tanks isolated using the linear elastomeric bearings under real earthquake ground motion.  In order to measure the effectiveness of isolation system, the seismic response of isolated steel tanks is compared with that of the non-isolated steel tanks. Two types of isolated tank models are considered in which the bearings are placed at the base and top of the steel tower structure. The seismic response is obtained by the Newmark’s step-by-step method. The response of two types of tanks, namely slender and broad tanks, is obtained and a parametric study is carried out to study the effects of important system parameters on the effectiveness of seismic isolation. The various important parameters considered are the tank aspect ratio, the time period of tower structure, damping and the time period of isolation system. Further, a parametric study has been carried out to examine the behavior of liquid storage steel tanks isolated with VFPIs. The important parameters considered are the friction coefficient of the VFPI, the Frequency Variation Factor (FVF) of the VFPI and the tank aspect ratio. It is observed from proposed analysis that the seismic response of elevated steel tanks accurately with significantly less computational efforts. It is concluded that seismic response, viz. the base shear, the sloshing displacement and the impulsive displacement, of liquid storage steel tanks during earthquake ground motions can be controlled with the installation of the VFPI. The linear elastomeric bearings and VFPI isolators has almost the same effect in the tank to the far-field ground motions. MATLAB software has been used for analysis and solving all dynamic equations of motion. The isolation is very effective in reducing the seismic response of elevated liquid storage tanks.

Aspect ratio, isolation system, liquid storage steel tank, system parameters.


1.        Anil K. Chopra: Dynamics of structures: Theory and application to earthquake Engg.
2.        Abali,E.and Uckan E.(2010) “Parametric analysis of liquid storage tanks base isolated By curved surface sliding bearings”Soil dynamics and earthquake Engg.Vol.30,Nos.1- 2,pp 21-31

3.        Haroun MA. Vibration studies and test of liquid storage tanks. Earthquake Eng Struct Dyn 1983;11:179-206.

4.        F. Omidinasab and H. Shakib.Seismic Response Evaluation of the RC Elevated Water   Tank with Fluid-Structure Interaction and Earthquake Ensemble, KSCE Journal of  Civil Engineering (2012) 16(3):366-376

5.        F. Omidinasab and H. Shakib.Seismic Response Evaluation of the RC Elevated Water Tank with Fluid-Structure Interaction and Earthquake Ensemble, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering (2012) 16(3):366-376

6.        Konstantin Meskouris, Britta Holtschoppen, Christoph Butenweg, Julia Rosin . seismic analysis of liquid storage tanks, (2nd INQUA-IGCP-567 International Workshop on Active Tectonics, Earthquake Geology, Archaeology and Engineering,Corinth, Greece (2011)

7.        M.K. Shrimali,R.S.Jangid , Earthquake response of isolated elevated liquid storage steel tanks

8.        Madhat Ahmed Haroun,Dynamic Analysis of liquid storage tanks,California Institute of Tech.,Earthquake Engg. Research Laboratory

9.        Malu Girish1, Murnal Pranesh.Sliding Isolation Systems: State-of-the-Art Review,  IOSR  Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) ISSN : 2278- 1684,PP : 30- 35 www.iosrjournals.org

10.     M.pranesh and Ravi Sinha.Aseismic design of tall structures using variable frequency pendulum oscillator,12 WCEE 2000

11.     Pranesh, M., 2000. VFPI: an innovative device for aseismic design. Ph.D. Thesis. Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay.

12.     Pranesh, M., Sinha, R., 2000a. VFPI: an isolation device for aseismic design. Earthquake Eng.  Struct. Dyn. 29, 603– 627.

13.     Pranesh, M., Sinha, R., 2000b. Aseismic design of tall structures using variable frequency  pendulum isolator. In: Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering,Auckland, New Zealand, Paper No. 284.

14.     Pranesh, M., Sinha, R., 2002. Earthquake resistant design of structures using VFPI. ASCE J.Struct. Eng. 128 (7), 870– 880.

15.     Sinha, R., Pranesh, M., 1998. FPS isolator for structural vibration control. In:Proceedings of  the International Conference on Theoretical, Applied, Computational and Experimental Mechanics, Kharagpur, India.

16.     IS 1893(part 2)-Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures:part 2 Liquid retaining tanks, BIS, New Delhi 

17.     MATLAB – 7. 0. 4

18.     V. R. Panchal and R. S. Jangid, Seismic Response of Liquid Storage Steel Tanks with Variable Frequency Pendulum Isolator

19.     Zayas, V.A., Low, S.S., Mahin, S.A., 1990. A simple pendulum technique for achieving seismic isolation. Earthquake Spectra 6, 317–333






Moustapha Sane, Martial Zoungrana, Hawa LY Diallo, Gokhan Sahin, Ndeye Thiam,

Mor Ndiaye, Moustapha Dieng, Grégoire Sissoko

Paper Title:

Influence of Incidence Angle on the Electrical Parameters of a vertical Silicon Solar Cell under Frequency Modulation

Abstract: A theoretical study of a vertical junction silicon solar cell in frequency modulation, with incidence angle effect under a monochromatic illumination has been done. Based on the diffusion-recombination equation, the expression of excess minority carrier density in the base was established according to the modulation frequency and the illumination incidence angle. Photocurrent density, photovoltage, series and shunt resistances are then deduced. The objective of this work is to show the effects of both modulation frequency and illumination incidence angle on these electrical parameters.

Vertical junction - incidence Angle - frequency modulation.


1.        Ahmed, F., and S. Garg. 1986.  International centre for theoretical physics, Trieste, Italy Internal Report.Thiam,  M. Zoungrana,  H. Ly Diallo,  A Diao, 
2.        N. Thiam,  , S. Gueye,   M.M. Deme, M. Sarr  and  G. Sissoko, 

3.        Influence of Incident Illumination Angle on Capacitance of a Silicon Solar  Cell under Frequency Modulation,  Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 5(4), pp 1123-1128, (2013).

4.        Balenzategui, J.L., F. Chenlo, 2005. Measurement and analysis of angular response of bare and encapsulated silicon solar cells Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 86 53–83

5.        Barro, F. I., A S Maiga, Wereme A, Sissoko G 2010. Determination of recombination parameters in the base of a bifacial silicon solar cell under constant multispectral light ; Phys. Chem. News 56 76-84

6.        Bousse, L., S. Mostarshed, D. Hafeman, M. Sartore, M. Adami et C. Nicolini. 1994.  Investigation of carrier          transport through silicon wafers by photocurrent measurements. J. Appl. Phys. Vol.75 (8): 4000 – 4008.

7.        Diallo, H. L., A. S. Maïga, A. Werene, G. Sissoko. 2008.  “New approach of both junction and back surface recombination velocities in a 3D modeling study of a polycrystalline silicon solar cell”, Eur.Phys.J.Applied.phys.42, 203-211.

8.        Diallo. H. Ly., B. Dieng, I. Ly, M.M. Dione, M. Ndiaye, O.H. Lemrabott, Z.N. Bako, A. Wereme and G. Sissoko, 2012. Determination of the Recombination and Electrical Parameters of a Vertical Multijunction Silicon Solar Cell. Res.J. Appl. Sci. Engineering Technol. Maxwell cientific Organization, 3(7): 602-611, ISSN: 2040-7467.

9.        Dieng A., I. Zerbo, M. Wade, A. S. Maiga and G. Sissoko, 2011. Three-dimensional study of a polycrystalline silicon solar cell: the influence of the applied magnetic field on the electrical parameters, Semicond. Sci.  Technol. 26 095023 (9pp).

10.     Dieng, A., N. Thiam, A. Thiam, A.S. Maiga and G.Sissoko, 2011, Magnetic field effect on the electrical parameters of a polycrystalline silicon solar cell. Res.J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Techn., 3(7): 602-611.

11.     Honma N and Munakata  C, 1987. Sample thickness dependence of minority carrier lifetimes measured using an ac photovoltaic method Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 26 2033–6

12.     Kunz, O., J. Wong, J. Janssens, J. Bauer, O. Breitenstein and A.G. Aberle, 2008. Shunting Problems Due to Sub-Micron Pinholes in Evaporated Solid-Phase Crystallised Poly-Si Thin-Film Solar Cells on Glass. Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2009; 17:35–46

13.     Mbodji S., B. Mbow, F. I. Barro  and G. Sissoko, 2011. A 3D model for thickness diffusion capacitance of emitter-base junction determination in a bifacial polycrystalline solar cell under real operating condition; Turk J Phys 35 281-291

14.     Mbodji, S., I. Ly, H.L. Diallo, M.M. Dione, O. Diasse and G. Sissoko, 2012. Modeling study of n+/p solar cell resistances from single I-V characteristic curve considering the junction recombination velocity (Sf). Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Techn., 4(1): 1-7.

15.     Misiakos, K., C. H. Wang, A. Neugroschel, and F. A. Lindholm, 1990. Simultaneous Extraction of minority-carrier parameters in crystalline semiconductors by lateral photocurrent, J. Appl. Phys. 67 (1): 321 – 333.

16.     Mohammad, S.N., 1987. An alternative method for the performance analysis of silicon solar cells, J. Appl. Phys. 61 (2): 767 – 772.

17.     Thiam Nd., A. Diao, M. Ndiaye, A. Dieng, A. Thiam, M. Sarr, A.S. Maiga and G. Sissoko, 2012. Electric equivalent models of intrinsic recombination velocities of a bifacial silicon solar cell under frequency modulation and magnetic field effect. Res.J. Appl. Sci. Engineering Technol. Maxwell Scientific Organization, 3(7): 602-611.

18.     Orton, J.W. and P. Blood, 1990. The Electrical Charactization of Semiconductor: Measurement of Minority Carrier Properties. Academic Press, London.

19.     Sissoko, G., C. Museruka, A. Corréa, I. Gaye, A. L. Ndiaye, 1996. World Renewable Energy Congress. part III, pp.1487-1490

20.     Sze S M and Kwok K Ng, 2007. Physics of Semiconductors Devices (New York: Wiley)

21.     Wenham, S. R., M. A. Green, M. E. Watt, R. Corkish, 2007. Applied Photovoltaics, Second Edition. Copyright © 2007, ARC Centre for Advanced Silicon Photovoltaics and Photonics.

22.     Wise, J.F., 1970. Vertical junction solar cell. U.S Patent 3690953,

23.     Zoungrana, A. M., N. Thiam, S. Gueye, M. M .Deme, M. Sarr and G. Sissoko, 2012. Influence of Incident Illumination Angle on Capacitance of a Silicon Solar Cell Under Frequency Modulation; Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology; Maxwell Scientific Organization.






M. M. Manyuchi, T. Mudamburi, A. Phiri and P. Muredzi

Paper Title:

Impact of Vermicompost on Lettuce Cultivated Soil

Abstract: Vermicomposting is an environmentally friendly technique that is used for organic solid waste management. Waste corn pulp blended with cow dung and office paper was vermicomposted over 30 days to produce vermicompost which is a bio-fertilizer. The vermicompost was applied to soil cultivated with lettuce at the planting and after every four weeks. The impact of vermicompost on the soil was quantified. Application of vermicompost resulted in a 5%, 21.7%, 16.9% and 4.92% increase in soil pH, nitrogen, phosphorous and manganese content respectively. Application of the vermicompost also resulted in a 9.41% and 3.77% decrease in soil electrical conductivity and potassium content respectively. However, application of vermicompost did not alter the copper and zinc content of the lettuce cultivated soil. The lettuce showed vigor and vitality during the period of growth. Vermicompost can be used for sustainable agriculture practices.

Bio-fertilizer, lettuce, soil properties, vermicompost.


1.        C. Lazcano, and J. Dominguez. The use of vermicompost in sustainable agriculture: Impact on plant growth and soil fertility. Soil Nutrients. 2011, 1-23.
2.        M. M. Manyuchi, A. Phiri, N. Chirinda, P. Muredzi, J. Govha and T. Sengudzwa. Vermicomposting of Waste Corn Pulp Blended with Cow Dung Manure using Eisenia Fetida. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. 2012, 68, 1306-1309.

3.        G. K. Chanda, G. Bhunia and S. K. Chakraborty. The effect of vermicompost and other fertilizers on cultivation of tomato plants. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, 2011, 3 (2), 42-45.

4.        M. M. Manyuchi, T. Chitambwe, P, Muredzi and Kanhukamwe, Q. Continuous flow-through vermireactor for medium scale vermicomposting. Asian Journal of Engineering and Technology. 2013, 1 (1), 44-48.

5.        P. K. Ramasamy, K. Baskar and S. Ignacimuthu. Influence of vermicompost on kernel yield of maize (Zea Mays L.). Elixir Agriculture, 2011, 36, 3119-3121.

6.        Manyuchi, M. M., A. Phiri, P. Muredzi and T. Chitambwe. Comparison of vermicompost and vermiwash bio-fertilizers from vermicomposting waste corn pulp. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. Copenhagen, Denmark. 2013, 78, 365-368.

7.        M. M. Manyuchi, T. Chitambwe, A. Phiri, P, Muredzi and Q, Kanhukamwe. Effect of vermicompost, vermiwash and application time on soil physicochemical properties. International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering. 2013, 4 (4), 216-220.

8.        M. M. Manyuchi, L. Kadzungura, A. Phiri, P, Muredzi and Q, Kanhukamwe. Effect of vermicompost, vermiwash and application time on soil micronutrients. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 2 (5), 215-218, 2013.

9.        M. M. Manyuchi, T. Chitambwe, A. Phiri, P, Muredzi and Q, Kanhukamwe. Effect of vermicompost, vermiwash and application time on Zea Mays Growth. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology, 2 (7), 638-641, 2013.

10.     N. Q. Arancon, C. A. Edwards, and P. Bierman. Influences of vermicomposts on field strawberries: Part 2. Effect on soil microbiological and chemical properties. Bioresource Technology. 2006, 97, 831-840.

11.     M. M. Manyuchi, A. Phiri, P. Muredzi and N. Chirinda. Effect of drying vermicompost on macronutrient composition. International Journal of Inventive Engineering and Sciences. 2013, 1 (10), 1-3.

12.     M. M. Manyuchi, A. Phiri, P. Muredzi and N. Chirinda. Bio-conversion of food wastes into vermi-products. International Journal of Science and Modern Engineering. 2013, 1 (10), 1-2.

13.     R. Azarmi, M. T. Giglou and R. D.Taleshmikail. Influence of vermicompost on soil chemical and physical properties in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) field. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008, 7 (14), 2397-2401.

14.     M. M. Manyuchi, Production of Bio-Fertilizers from Vermicomposting of Waste Corn Pulp Blended with Cow Dung as a Solid Waste Management Approach, ISBN: 9781627723985, PUBLISHAMERICA, 2013.

15.     K. Tharmaraj, P. Ganesh, K. Kolanjinathan, K. R. Suresh and A. Anandan. Influence of vermicompost and vermiwash on physicochemical properties of rice cultivated soil. Current Botany. 2011, 2 (3), 18-21.

16.     M. M. Manyuchi and A. Phiri, “Effective separation of Eisenia fetida earthworms from vermicasts using a cylindrical rotary trommel separator”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2 (8), 4069-4072, 2013.

17.     C. P. Jordao, L. L. Fialho, P. R. Cecon, A. T. Matos, J. C. L. Neves, E. S. Mendonca and R. F. L. Fontes. Effects of Cu, Ni, and Zn on lettuce grown in metal-enriched vermicompost amended soil. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 2006, 172, 21-38.

18.     Commodity specific food safety guidelines for the lettuce and leaf green supply chain, 2006, 1st edition, 25 April.






Chandrakant N

Paper Title:

Exchanging Path Oriented N-Generated Keys Via Alternative Path for Secured Communication in MANETs

Abstract: In this paper, communication in a MANET works on key sharing called KEY1 and KEY2 to establish link between nodes. Here source node will generate and stores KEY2 and destination node will generate and stores KEY1. When source node initiates communication for destination, source node will send a request packet to destination via shortest/less cost path (PATH1). Here PATH1 can have many nodes and each node will generate a secret key whenever it receives a packet for first time for a particular session. Now that packet should take this key and move ahead to next node, similarly, next node too generates a secret key and appends to this packet, this task will be continued until packet reaches its destination, these all intermediate keys (IK) are merged (like applying arithmetic or logical operation) to form a unique key in the destination called as IKn2 where n>2 i.e excluding source node and destination node. Both side communications should have respective node’s keys. i.e source packet should have KEY1,IKn2 and destination packet should have KEY2,IKn2. KEY1, KEY2 and IKn2 will expire after each session ends. So keys are shared before communication establishment.

MANET, IKn2, Alternative Path, Intermediate Key.


1.        J. Glowacka and M. Amanowicz. Application of dezertsmarandache theory for tactical manet security enhancement. In Communications and Information Systems Conference (MCC), 2012 Military, pages 1–6, 2012.
2.        P. Gulia and S. Sihag. Article: Review and analysis of the security issues in manet. International Journal of Computer Applications, 75(8):23–26, August 2013. Published by Foundation of Computer Science, New York, USA.

3.        Nikola Milanovic Miroslaw Malek, Anthony Davidson, Veljko Milutinovic. Routing and security in mobile ad hoc networks. In Published by the IEEE Computer Society, pages 61–65, 2004.

4.        M. Qayyum, P. Subhash, and M. Husamuddin. Security issues of data query processing and location monitoring in manets. In Communication, Information Computing Technology (ICCICT), 2012 International Conference on, pages 1–5, 2012.

5.        Shakshuki, E.M. and Nan Kang and Sheltami, T.R. Eaack:a secure intrusiondetection system for manets. volume 60, pages 1089–1098, 2013.

6.        L. ShiChang, Y. HaoLan, and Z. QingSheng. Research on manet security architecture design. In Signal Acquisition and Processing, 2010. ICSAP ’10. International Conference on, pages 90–93, 2010.

7.        S. Soni and S. Nayak. Enhancing security features amp; performance of aodv protocol under attack for manet. In  Intelligent Systems and Signal Processing (ISSP), 2013 International Conference on, pages 325–328, 2013.

8.        S. J. Sudhir Agrawal and S. Sharma. A survey of routing attacks and security measures in mobile adhoc networks. In JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1, ISSN 21519617, pages 41–48, 2011.

9.        Tamilarasi, M. and Sundararajan, T. V P. Secure enhancement scheme for detecting selfish nodes in manet. In Computing, Communication and Applications (ICCCA), 2012 International Conference on, pages 1–5, 2012.






Vikas Patil, Madhumati Unde, Manjusha Jagtap

Paper Title:

Efficient Indexing of Spatial Query

Abstract: In past few years the Geographical Information Retrieval is very active field for research. Due to this research a new type of search engine came into existence called as Geographical Search Engine. Geographical search engine help to retrieve document which more textually and spatially relevant to our query. Indexing structure for spatial relevant is the main goal of this field and also to store and retrieve document having spatial scope of the given query. In this context we give an efficient tree structure called IR-tree, which allows searches to adopt different scope on textual and spatial relevance of document.

Geographical Search Engine, Spatial Relevance, IR-Tree.


1.        R. Hariharan, B. Hore, C. Li, and S. Mehrotra, “Processing Spatial-Keyword (SK) Queries in Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR)Systems,” Proc. 19th Int’l Conf. Scientific and Statistical Database Management (SSDBM ’07), pp. 16-25, 2007.
2.        C.B. Jones, A.I. Abdelmoty, D. Finch, G. Fu, and S. Vaid, “The SPIRIT Spatial Search Engine: Architecture, Ontologies and Spatial Indexing,” Proc. Third Int’l Conf. Geographic Information Science (GIS ’04), pp. 125-139, 2004.

3.        R. Lee, H. Shiina, H. Takakura, Y.J. Kwon, and Y. Kambayashi,“Optimization of Geographic Area to a Web Page for Two-Dimensional Range Query Processing,” Proc. Fourth Int’l Conf. Web Information Systems Eng. Workshops (WISEW ’03), pp. 9-17, 2003.

4.        Y. Zhou, X. Xie, C. Wang, Y. Gong, and W.-Y. Ma, “Hybrid Index Structures for Location-Based Web Search,” Proc. 14th ACM Int’l Conf. Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM ’05), pp. 155-162, 2005.

5.        A. Guttman. R-trees: A dynamic index structure for spatial searching. In SIGMOD, pages 47–57, 1984.

6.        Y. Zhou, X. Xie, C. Wang, Y. Gong, and W.-Y. Ma. Hybrid index structures for location-based web search. In CIKM, pages 155–162,2005.

7.        S. Vaid, C. B. Jones, H. Joho, and M. Sanderson. Spatio-textual indexing for geographical search on the web. In SSTD, pages218–235, 2005.

8.        A. Khodaei, C. Shahabi, and C. Li. Hybrid indexing and seamless ranking of spatial and textual features of web documents. In DEXA, pages 450–466, 2010.

9.        Y.-Y. Chen, T. Suel, and A. Markowetz. Efficient query processing in geographic web search engines. In SIGMOD, pages 277–288, 2006.

10.     M. Christoforaki, J. He, C. Dimopoulos, A. Markowetz, and T. Suel. Text vs. space: efficient geo-search query processing. In CIKM, pages 423–432, 2011.

11.     K.S. Jones, “A Statistical Interpretation of Term Specificity and Its Application in Retrieval,” J. Documentation, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 11-21, 1972.

12.     A. Markowetz, Y.-Y. Chen, T. Suel, X. Long, and B. Seeger,“Design and Implementation of a Geographic Search Engine,”Proc. Eighth Int’l Workshop Web and Databases (WebDB), pp. 19-24,2005.

13.     K.S. McCurley, “Geospatial Mapping and Navigation of the Web,”Proc. Int’l Conf. World Wide Web (WWW ’01), pp. 221-229, 2001.

14.     D. Hiemstra, “A Probabilistic Justification for Using TF x IDFTerm Weighting in Information Retrieval,” Int’l J. Digital Libraries,vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 131-139, 2000.

15.     G. Salton and C. Buckley, “Term-Weighting Approaches inAutomatic Text Retrieval,” Information Processing & Management,vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 513-523, 1988.

16.     Y.-Y. Chen, T. Suel, and A. Markowetz, “Efficient QueryProcessing in Geographic Web Search Engines,” Proc. ACM SIGMOD ’06, pp. 277-288, 2006.

17.     R. Lee, H. Shiina, H. Takakura, Y.J. Kwon, and Y. Kambayashi, “Optimization of Geographic Area to a Web Page for Two- Dimensional Range Query Processing,” Proc. Fourth Int’l Conf. Web Information Systems Eng. Workshops (WISEW ’03), pp. 9-17, 2003.






Sagar Devidas Bole

Paper Title:

Mitigation of Switching Transient in Transformer

Abstract: An inrush current is a transient current with high amplitude that may occurs when a transformer is energized under no load or lightly loaded conditions. The magnitude of inrush current may be as high as several times of transformer rated current. The magnitude of inrush current depends upon leakage reactance, source strength, impendence of winding, residual flux. Inrush current causes huge mechanical and thermal stress on transformer in addition to inadvertent operation of the protective relay systems. The conventional method like pre-insertion of resistor, point on wave is used to minimize the inrush current. Inrush current in transformer can be reduced by selecting appropriate switching angle with respect to the remnant flux. In this paper dynamic modeling of transformer is used for detailed analysis of the inrush current and the effect of switching angle on the magnitude of inrush current is observed.

Dynamic modeling, switching transient.


1.        Y. Cui, S. G. Abdulsalam, S. Chen and W. Xu, “ A sequential phase energization technique for transformer inrush current reduction – part I: simulation  and  experimental results”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 20, No. 2, April 2005, pp. 943-949
2.        W. Xu, S. G. Abdulsalam, Y. Cui and X. Liu, “ A  sequential phase energization technique for transformer inrush current reduction – part II: theoretical analysis and  design guide”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 20, No. 2, April 2005, pp. 950-957

3.        S. Yacamini, R.and Bronzeado, H. S., “Transformer inrush calculations using a coupled electromagnetic model”, IEE Proc. - Science, Measurements and Technologies, Vol. 141, No. 6, pp. 491-498, Nov. 1994.

4.        R. Yacamini and A. Abu-Nasser, “The calculation of inrush current in three-phase transformers,” IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl., vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 31–40, Jan. 1986

5.        Yacamini R. And  Abu-Nasser A., “Numerical Calculation of Inrush Current in Single-Phase Transformer”, IEE Proc., Vol. 128, No. 6, pp. 327-334

6.        J. H. Brunke, and K. J. Frohlich, “Elimination of  transformer inrush currents by controlled switching –  part I: theoretical considerations”, IEEE  Transactions  on  Power  Delivery,  Vol.  16,  No.2,  April  2001, pp.276-280

7.        M. G. Say “The performance and design of alternating current machine”, CBS publications, Third edition, 2000.

8.        Chee-Mun Ong “Dynamic Simulation Of Electric Machinery Using Matlab Simulink”, Prentice hall.PTR






Vaishnavi Deokar, Sayali Deshpande, Radhika Devkar

Paper Title:

Password Generation Techniques For Accessing Cloud Services

Abstract: Cloud computing is emerging field because of its performance, high availability, least cost and many others. Besides this companies are binding there business from cloud computing because the fear of data leakage. Due to lack of proper security control policy and weakness in safeguard which lead to many vulnerability in cloud computing.When organizations utilize cloud services, authenticating users  in a trustworthy and manageable manner is a vital requirement. Organizations must address authentication related challenges such as credential management, strong authentication, delegated authentication, and managing trust across all types of cloud services. Users tend to choose memorable passwords that are easy for attackers to guess, but strong system assigned passwords are difficult for users to remember. Thus depending on the file parameters(C- Confidentiality, I- Integrity, A- Availability), we use textual password for lower privilege files, CCP passwords(Cued Clickpoint) for medium privilege files and PCCP password(Persuasive cued Clickpoint) for high privilege files. In this paper we focus on the integrated evaluation of the Persuasive Cued-Click Points graphical password authentication system, including usability and security. An important usability goal for authentication systems is to support users in selecting better passwords, thus increasing security by expanding the effective password space.

Authentication, cued-click points, Graphical passwords, guessing attacks, persuasive technology.


1.        Chiasson, S., Biddle, R., and van Oorschot, P.C. A Second Look at the Usability of Click-Based Graphical Passwords. Symp. on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) 2007.
2.        S. Chiasson, P. van Oorschot, and R. Biddle, “Graphical password authentication using Cued Click Points,” in European Symposium on Research in Computer Security (ESORICS), LNCS 4734, September 2007, pp. 359–374.

3.        Dirik, A.E., Memon, N., and Birget, J.C. Modeling user choice in the PassPoints graphical password scheme. Symp. on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) 2007.

4.        D. Davis, F. Monrose, and M. Reiter, ―On user choice in graphical password schemes,‖ in 13th USENIX Security Symposium, 2004.

5.        Birget, J.C., Hong, D., and Memon, N. Graphical Passwords Based on Robust Discretization. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 1, no. 3, September 2006.

6.        Chippy.T and R.Nagendran,” Defenses Against Large Scale Online Password Guessing Attacks By Using Persuasive Click Points”, International Journal of Communications and Engineering Volume 03– No.3, Issue: 01 March2012.






Mame Faty Mbaye, Martial Zoungrana, Ndeye Thiam, Amadou Diao,Gokhan Sahin,

Mor Ndiaye, Moustapha Dieng, Grégoire Sissoko

Paper Title:

Study of the Photo Thermal Response of a Mono Facial Solar Cell in Dynamic Regime under a Multispectral Illumination and Under Magnetic Field

Abstract: In this article, we present the study of the photo thermal response of a monofacial silicon solar cell illuminate by a multispectral light for a constant modulated frequency and under magnetic field. After the resolution of the equation of continuity of the minority carriers of loads, we establish with the help of some justified approximations, the equations of heat in the presence of an optical source of heat and the new boundary conditions allowing to solve those.The density of minority carriers in excess, the amplitude of the variation of temperature and the heat fluxdensity were studied and analyzed for different angular pulses and for different values of the magnetic field and rates of recombination at thejunction. Representations of Nyquistand Bodeplots of the thermal dynamic impedance resulted in an equivalent electrical circuit of the photo cell.

Keywords: Solar cell- frequency modulation- magnetic field - Capacitive effect, inductive effect, photo thermal.

1.        Barro,F.I.,E.Nanema,A.Wereme,F.ZougmoreandG. Sissoko, 2001.Recombination parameters measurement in silicon double sided surface field solar cell.J.Des.Sci.,1(1):76-80.
2.        Barro,F.I.,E.Nanema,F.Zougmore,A.Wereme,A.NdiayeandG.Sissoko,2003.Transient study of double sided silicon solar cell under constant white biaslight:Determination of recombination parameters.J.Des.Sci.,3(1):10-14.

3.        Dème,M.M.,S.Sarr,R.Sam,S.Gueye,M.L.Samb,F.I.BarroandG.Sissoko,2009.Influence of grainsize, there combination velocity at grain boundaries and the angle of incidence of light on the enlargement of the space charge zone of a solar cell mono faciale.J.Sci.,9(2):17-27.

4.        Diallo,H.L.,A.S.Maiga,A.WeremeandG.Sissoko,2008.New approach of both junction and back surface recombination velocities in a 3D modeling study of a poly crystal line silicon solar cell.Europ.

5.        Phys.J.Appl.Phys.,42:203-211.

6.        Dieng,A.,O.H.Lemrabott,A.S.Maiga,A.DiaoandG.Sissoko,200

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Swarnalatha Eluri, Hemalatha Rallapalli

Paper Title:

Design of Fault Tolerant Memory System with Difference Set Cyclic Codes

Abstract: The problem of single event upset (SEU) due to higher integration, smaller dimensions and lower voltages is very common and need to be addressed. The effect of SEU is not only present at the terrestrial environments but also at the ground level. The SEUs also result in silent data corruption which results in the further corruption of data, especially in memories. A special class of LDPC codes called Difference Set Cyclic Codes (DSCC) is used to design a fault tolerant memory system that detects the silent data corruption. The DSCC is simple and easy to implement.

Difference Set Cyclic Codes (DSCC), LDPC, Majority Logic Fault Detector (MLDD), Single Event Upsets (SEU).


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