Abstract: The first mode of communication in the early ages was gesture. Later on the verbal communication was developed very well. But still non-verbal communication has its importance. Non – verbal communication is used for the physically challenged people, for different applications. For e.g. aviation, surveying, music direction etc. It is the method to interact with other peripheral devices, such as keyboard, mouse. The important steps involved in HGR systems are data acquisition, gesture modelling, feature extraction and hand gesture recognition. Different algorithm are followed by different researchers or sometimes used their own algorithm. This paper studies different methods of HGR and finally the desired characteristics of a robust and efficient hand gesture recognition system have been described.
Keywords: Hand gesture recognition, Principal component analysis (PCA), Rotation invariant.
1. RafiqulZaman Khan & Noor Adnan Ibraheem (2012), omparative study of hand gesture recognition system” Department of Computer Science, A.M.U., Aligarh, India.
2. SushmitaMitra, Senior Member, IEEE, and Tinku Acharya, Senior Member, IEEE (2007), “Gesture Recognition: A Survey”
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Abstract: Web mining is the analysis step of the "Knowledge Discovery in Web Databases" process which is an intersection of computer science and statistics. In this process results are produced from pattern matching and clustering which may not be relevant to the actual search. For example result for tree may be apple tree, mango tree whereas the user is searching for binary tree. N-grams are applied in applications like searching in text documents, where one must work with phrases. Eg: plagiarism detection. Thus relevancy becomes major part in searching. We can achieve relevancy using n-gram algorithm. We show an index based method to discover patterns in large data sets. It utilizes methods at the conjunction of AI, machine learning and statistics. We also induce a method of personalization where the search engine is used for indexing purposes in addition to the current n-gram techniques. A collaborative web search method is used for user’s personalization in the web search engine to extract the required accurate data.
Keywords: Web Mining, Knowledge Discovery, N-Gram, Stemming.
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Abstract: The Existence of misbehaving nodes may paralyze the routing operation in MANET. To overcome this behavior that trustworthiness of the network nodes should be consider in the route selection process combined with the next count. The trustworthiness is achieved by measuring the trust value for each node in the network. In this paper a new protocol based on agent based monitoring followed the dynamic source routing (DSR) algorithm is presented. This protocol is applied in agent based trusted Dynamic source routing protocol for MANET’s. The objective of this protocol is to mange trust information among self nodes with minimal overhead in terms of time delay and data loss. This objective is achieved through Collaborative Agent Monitoring System (CAMS) by installing in each participated node in the network .CAMS Consist of two types of agent: Self monitoring agent and routing agent. A proposed realistic objective model for measuring trust value is introduced. One of the significant attack in ad hoc network is wormhole attack is more hidden in character and tougher to detect. In this paper an Attitude Agent Intrusion Detection System (AAIDS).
Keywords: Routing -Worm hole – Intrusion - Detection.
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