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Volume-3 Issue-4: Published on March 20, 2015
14
Volume-3 Issue-4: Published on March 20, 2015

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S. No

Volume-3 Issue-4, March 2015, ISSN: 2319-9598 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.

1.

Authors:

U. K. Kulkarni, K. V. Kulkarni, D. V. Mane, R. K. Pardeshi

Paper Title:

New Chromogenic Spray Reeagent for Detection of Acephate from Biological Material

Abstract: High performance thin layer chromatography has found wide recognition in many fields and in sensitivity of detection offers particular advantage to the toxicologist, which has increased, 10 to 100 times as compared to the chemical method. It has become an important analytical tool since it can separate complex mixture in a relatively short time. In existing study, an effort has been taken to determine organ phosphorus insecticide Acephate by using high performance thin layer chromatography.  A new specific Sensitive chromogenic reagent 0.1% solution of ferric chloride in 80% ethanol and 1 % Sulfosalicylic acid in 80% ethanol has been developed for detection of Acephate an organophosphorus insecticide with solvent system petroleum ether: methanol (95: 5).

Keywords:
Chromatography, chromogenic, Acephate, ferric chloride, ethanol, Sulfosalicylic, organophosphorus.


References:

1.        Fritz Feigl, Spot Test in Inorganic Analysis, VII Ed. Elsevier  Amsterdam, 1975.
2.        The Merck Index, 13 th Merck, Rathway, NJ,1988 p6272

3.        U.S.EPA Office of pesticide  programs

4.        Extension Toxicology Network pesticide information profile.

5.        Joglekar V.D. and Mahal H.S.,Arcguve fir crunubikguem1968:142:170-176

6.        Katkar H.N. and Barve V.P. Current Science,1976:45(18);662-664

7.        Kawale  G.B. and Joglekar V.S.,Current Science, 1976:45(2);57

8.        Lanjewar R.B. ,Chutke N.L. Specific Chromogenic reagent for detection of Profenophos in Biological sample by HPTLC, J of Science & Engg.,2010,Vol(2);60-62

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2.

Authors:

Ahmed Mudassar Ali, M. Ramakrishna

Paper Title:

A Novel Approach for Knowledge Extraction Using Ontology Construction Method

Abstract: In recent research, Ontology construction plays a major role for transforming raw texts into useful knowledge. It reduces the difficulties in understanding the information and semantic interpretation. The proposed method in this paper supports efficient construction of ontology and applies efficient method to train the data before taking into testing process. The proposed approach uses the phrase-pairs to extract useful knowledge and uses data mining techniques and neural network approach to express the knowledge well and also it improves the search speed and accuracy of information retrieval. This method avoids noise generation by analyzing the relevancy of tags to the retrieval process and shows somewhat better recall value compared to other methods. In this approach an optimized reasoners is applied to reduce complexity in the key inference problem. The formulated ontology can help clearly expressing its meaning for various concepts and relations. Due to the increasing size of ontology repository, the matching process may take more time. To avoid this, this method forms a hierarchical structure with semantic interpretation of data. The system is designed to extract useful knowledge from data sources that are constructed by collecting data from diverse sources.

Keywords:
Back propagation, domain ontology, knowledge extraction, information retrieval, agricultural environment.


References:

1.        Aree Thunkijjanukij, Asanee Kawtrakul, Supamard Panichsakpatana , Uamporn Veesommai , ,” Lesson learned for ontology construction with Thai rice case study”, “in press”.World Conference on agricultural information and IT”,2008,Pages:495-502.
2.        WEN Bi-long , HANG Li,”Method of building petroleum exploration and production domain ontology”, “in press” Computer Engineering and Applications, 2009.45(034):p.1-3.

3.        Zhang Rui-ling, XU Hong-sheng,”Using Bayesian network and neural network constructing domain ontology”, “in press” World Congress on Computer Science and Information Engineering, 2009, IEEE 2008, Pages: 116-231.

4.        Guarino.N, “Formal ontology in information systems”, “in press”1998.Proceedings of IOS.

5.        Elena P. Sapozhnikova,” Multi-label classification with art neural networks”, “in press” Second International Workshop on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 2009 IEEE, Pages: 144-147.

6.        Xin-fu LI, lei-lei ZHAO, li-hong WU,”A feature extraction method using base phrase and keyword in Chinese text”, “in press” Proceedings of 2008 3rd International Conference on Intelligent System and Knowledge Engineering, Pages: 680-685, 2008 IEEE.

7.        Shubin Zhao Ralph Grishman,” Extracting Relations with Integrated Information Using Kernel Methods”, “in press” Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the ACL, pages 419–426, Ann Arbor, June 2005.

8.        A.Nag!, S. Biswas*, D. Sarkar*, P.P. Sarkar*, B. Gupta**, “A Simple Feature Extraction Technique of a Pattern By Hopfield Network”, “in press” International Journal of Advancements in Technology, ISSN 0976-4860, Vol 1, No 1 (June 2010),pages:45-49.

9.        Hongbo Liu1, 3, Ajith Abraham2, and Benxian Yue3,” Nature Inspired Multi-Swarm Heuristics for Multi-Knowledge Extraction”, “in press” Advances in Machine Learning II, pp. 445–466, 2010.

10.     Spyns,P.,”EvaLexon:Assessing triples mined from texts”.Technical Report 09,STAR Lab,Brussels,Belgium,2005.

11.     Velardi,P.,et al.,”Evaluation of OntoLearn,a methodology for automatic learning of domain ontologies.In:Ont.Learning from Text:Methods”,Evaluation and Applications,IOS Press,2005.

12.     Weng,S.,Tsai,H,Liu,S.,and Hsu,C.,,”Ontology Construction for information classification ,Expert Systems with Applications”,31(1),1-12.

13.     Christine W. Chan, 2004. From Knowledge Modeling to Ontology Construction. International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (IJSEKE).

14.     Gaoying Cui, Qin Lu, Wenjie Li, Yirong Chen. Corpus Exploitation from Wikipedia for Ontology Construction: 2125-2132

15.     Chen-Huei Chou, Fatemeh Zahedi, Huimin Zhoa, 2008. Ontology for developing websites for natural disaster management: methodology and implementation.

16.     Harith Alani, 2006. Position paper: Ontology construction from online ontologies. Proceedings of the 15th international conference on World Wide Web : 491 - 495.

17.     Antonio M. Rinaldi, 2009. An Ontology-Driven Approach for Semantic Information Retrieval on the Web. In ACM Transactions on Internet Technologies, Volume 9, Article 10.

18.     Xu Binfeng,Luo, Xiaogang Peng Cenglin, Huang Qian, 2007. Based on ontology: construction and application of medical knowledge base. IEEE International conference on complex medical engineering: 586- 589.


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3.

Authors:

J. Thirumaran, S. Dhinakaran

Paper Title:

Nano-Robotics in Medical Applications-Ventilons

Abstract: Nano Robotics is a field under continuous development. It involves the construction of robots of the size of 10^-9m. In the last decade many nano robots have made their way out of the drawing boards to enter into the human body and do things beyond human imagination. Symptoms like itching and fever have certain biochemical causes which can be eliminated by injecting nano robots. In this technological era of development our paper acts as a beacon for scientists and research scholars. Our paper mainly concentrates on creating nano robots that mimic the action of RBC’s. These nano robots are called as Ventilons. Our paper also concentrates on future trends of nano robotics like implementing nano robots to detect human physiology. The second part of our paper deals with introducing nanosensors and nano-robots in detecting Human blood sugar level. These nano-robots are embedded with mobile phones and the status of the patient can be read from remote places.  These nano particles that reduce the size of microelectronic components will cover the entire world inside a single chip.

Keywords:
Nano-robots, nano sensors, ventilons, nano technology, nano-medicine.


References:

1.        Wang, J. (2009). "Can Man-Made Nanomachines Compete with Nature Biomotors?". ACS Nano 3 (1): 4–9.
2.        Fisher, B. (2008). "Biological Research in the Evolution of Cancer Surgery: A Personal Perspective". Cancer Research 68 (24): 10007– 10020.

3.        Cavalcanti, A., Shirinzadeh, B., Zhang, M. & Kretly, L.C. (2008). "Nanorobot Hardware Architecture for Medical Defense". Sensors 8 (5): 2932–2958.

4.        Hill, C., Amodeo, A ., Joseph, J.V. & Patel, H.R.H. (2008). "Nano- and microrobotics: how far is the reality?". Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 8 (12): 1891–1897.

5.        Cale, T.S., Lu, J.-Q. & Gutmann, R.J. (2008). "Three-dimensional integration in microelectronics: Motivation, processing, and thermomechanical modeling". Chemical Engineering Communications 195 (8): 847–888.

6.        Couvreur, P. & Vauthier, C. (2006). "Nanotechnology: Intelligent Design to Treat Complex Disease". Pharmaceutical Research 23 (7): 1417–1450.

7.        Elder, J.B., Hoh, D.J., Oh, B.C., Heller, A.C., Liu, C.Y. & Apuzzo, M.L. (2008). "The future of cerebral surgery: a kaleidoscope of opportunities". Neurosurgery 62 (6): 1555–1579.

8.        Martel, S., Mohammadi, M., Felfoul, O., Lu, Z. & Pouponneau P. (2009). "Flagellated Magnetotactic Bacteria as Controlled MRItrackable Propulsion and Steering Systems for Medical Nanorobots Operating in the Human Microvasculature". International Journal of Robotics Research 28 (4): 571–582.

9.        Cavalcanti, A. (2009). "Nanorobot Invention and Linux: The Open Technology Factor - An Open Letter to UNO General Secretary". CANNXS Project 1

10.     Vaughn JR. (2006). "Over the Horizon: Potential Impact of Emerging Trends in Information and Communication Technology on Disability Policy and Practice". National Council on Disability, Washington DC.: 1–55.


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4.

Authors:

V. S. Malunjkar, M. G. Shinde, S. S. Ghotekar, A. A. Atre

Paper Title:

Estimation of Surface Runoff using SWAT Model

Abstract: Runoff is a very important phenomenon of hydrological cycle and it is relevant for the watershed management programme for conservation and development or natural resources and its management. However, In India the availability of accurate information on runoff is scarce. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a physically based distributed parameter model which has been developed to predict runoff, erosion, sediment and nutrient transport from agricultural watersheds under different management practices. For the present study, a small agricultural watershed has been selected for runoff assessment. Geoinformatic techniques such as ERDAS software and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data are used for execution of the model. Calibration of the model is done with the help of observed data and then it is validated on selected study area. For calibration and validation, daily observed runoff data of 1997 and 1998 were used. It is found from the results that, Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency was 0.62 and 0.74 respectively and coefficient of determination was 0.98 and 0.95 respectively for calibration and validation period.

Keywords:
Hydrological modeling, Runoff, Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency and SWAT.


References:

1.        C. W. Dawson and R. L. Wilby, “Hydrological modeling using artificial neural networks. Prog. Phys. Geog. 2001, 25, pp: 80-108.
2.        T. A. Fontaine, T. S. Cruickshank, J. G. Arnold and R. H.  Hotchkiss, “Development or a snowfall-snowmelt routine for mountain- terrain for the soil water assessment tool (SWAT).” J. Hydrol. 2002, 262, pp: 209-223.

3.        D. B. Beasley, L. F. Huggins and E. J. Monke, “ANSWERS: a model for watershed planning.” Trans. ASAE, 1980. pp: 938– 944.

4.        M. A. Nearing, G. R. Foster, L. J. Lane and S. C. Finkner, “A process-based soil erosion model for USDA-water erosion prediction project technology.” 1989. Trans. ASAE, 32 (5), pp: 1587– 1593.

5.        R. K. Misra and C. W. Rose, “Manual for use of program GUEST.” Division of Australian Environmental Studies Report. Griffith Univ., Brisbane, Australia, Queensland. 1990.

6.        R. P. C. Morgan, J. N. Quinton, R. E. Smith, G. Govers, J. W. A. Poesen, K. Auerswald, G. Chisci,  D. Torri and M. E. Styczen, “The European soil erosion model (EUROSEM): a dynamic approach for predicting sediment transport from fields and small catchments.” Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 1998. 23, pp: 527–544.

7.        A. P. J. De Roo and R. J. E. Offermans, “LISEM: a physically-based hydrological and soil erosion model for basin-scale water and sediment management.” Proc. Boulder Symp., 1995. IAHS Publ. no. 231. pp: 399-407.

8.        G. J. Arnold, R. Srinivasan, R. S. Muttiah and J. R. Williams, “Large area hydrologic modeling and assessment Part I: Model development.” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 34. 1998. (1), pp; 73–89.

9.        J. E. Nash and J. V. Sutcliffe, “River flow forecasting through conceptual models, Part-1: A discussion of principles”. J. Hydrol. 1970. 10 (3), pp: 282–290.

10.     S. A. Glantz and B. K. Slinker, “Primer of Applied Regression and Analysis of Variance.” McGraw-Hill, Vol.07, 1990. pp:  407-412.


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5.

Authors:

V. S. Malunjkar, M. G. Shinde, A. A. Atre, V. N. Barai

Paper Title:

Assessment of Runoff and Sediment Yield from a Small Agricultural Watershed

Abstract: Runoff and soil erosion are very important processes need to be consider during watershed planning and management and are often non-linear and scale dependent, which complicate runoff and erosion modeling at the catchment scale. One of the reasons for scale dependency is the influence of sinks, i.e. areas of infiltration and sedimentation, which lower hydrological connectivity and decrease the area-specific runoff and sediment yield. The simulation models are useful tools for prediction of runoff and soil erosion at plot scale to catchment scale. Various predictive models have been developed by various researchers for predicting runoff and sediment yield from watersheds. The objective of this study was to model runoff and sediment yield for a small watershed using a coupled approach based on Natural Resources Conservation Service Curve Number (NRCS-CN) method and the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The results showed that the coupled approach of NRCS-CN and USLE model accurately simulate runoff and sediment yield from the study area.

Keywords:
Runoff, erosion, simulation, universal soil loss equation.


References:

1.        G. R. Foster and L. D. Meyer, “A closed-form soil erosion equation for upland areas”, In: Shen, H.W. (Ed.), Sedimentation Symp. in Honor Prof. H. A. Einstein. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 1972. pp: 12.1–12.19.
2.        V. Novotny and G. Chesters, “Delivery of sediment and pollutants from nonpoint sources: a water quality perspective”. J. Soil and Water Cons., 1989. pp: 568–576.

3.        M. S. Reddy, “Theme paper on Water: Vision 2050.” Ind. Water Resour. Soc. Roorkee, 1999. pp: 51–53.

4.        NBSSLUP, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning. Land. “Degradation Scenario of India and Programmes/Schemes for development of degraded lands”. Unpublished report.

5.        D. B. Beasley, L. F. Huggins and E. J. Monke, “ANSWERS: a model for watershed planning”. Trans. ASAE, 1980. pp: 938– 944.

6.        R. A. Young, C. A. Onstad, D. D. Bosch and W. P. Anderson, “AGNPS: a nonpoint-source pollution model for evaluating agricultural watersheds”. J. Soil and Water Cons., 1989. pp: 168–173.

7.        M. A. Nearing, G. R. Foster, L. J. Lane, and S. C. Finkner, “A process-based soil erosion model for USDA-water erosion prediction project technology”. Trans. ASAE, 1989. 32 (5), pp: 1587– 1593.

8.        G. J. Arnold, R. Srinivasan, R. S. Muttiah and J. R. Williams, “Large area hydrologic modeling and assessment Part I: Model development”. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 1998. 34 (1), pp: 73–89.

9.        S. K. Mishra, J. V. Tyagi, V. P. Singh and R. Singh, “SCS-CN-based modeling of sediment yield”, J. Hydrol. 2006. 324, pp: 301-322.

10.     USDA, “Urban hydrology for small watersheds”. United States Department of Agriculture. Natural Resources Conservation Service. Conservation Engineering Division. Tech. Release 55. 2nd ed. Washington, DC. 1986. P. 164.

11.     W. H. Wischmeier and D. D. Smith, “Predicting rainfall erosion losses from cropland east of the Rocky Mountains: Guide for selection of practices for soil and water conservation.”  U.S. Department of Agriculture handbook No. 537. 1965.

12.     A. A. Atre, A. S. Damale and G. B. Bangal, “Estimation of erosion index at Rahuri (Maharashtra)”. J. Maharashtra Agric. Uni. 1997.  22 (2). pp: 221-222.

13.     R. K. Singh, R. K. Panda, K. K. Satapathy and S. V. Ngachan, “Simulation of runoff and sediment yield from a hilly watershed in the eastern Himalaya, India using
the WEPP model.” J. Hydrol. 2011. 405, pp: 261–276.

14.     J. Martinec and A. Rango, “Merits of statistical criteria for the performance of hydrologic models”. Water Resour. Bull. AWRA , 1989.  25 (20), pp: 421–432.

15.     J. E. Nash and J. V. Sutcliffe, “River flow forecasting through conceptual models, Part-1: A discussion of principles”. J. Hydrol. 1970. 10 (3), pp: 282–290.


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6.

Authors:

Bankar Kartik, Joshi Bhargav, Mungal Mahajan, Subhash Rathod

Paper Title:

NFC Based Android API Healthcare System

Abstract: With the recent increase in usage of mobile devices especially in developing countries, they can be used for an efficient healthcare management. In this work, we have proposed a novel architecture for improving health care system with the help of Android based mobile devices with NFC and Bluetooth interfaces, smartcard technology on tamper resistant secure element (SE) for storing credentials and secure data, and a Health Secure service on a hybrid cloud for security and health record management. The main contribution of this paper is proposal of applications for: i) Secure Medical Tags for reducing medical errors and ii) Secure health card for storing Electronic Health Record (EHR) based on Secure NFC tags, mobile device using NFC P2P Mode. Since NFC NDEF format is prone to security attacks [2], we have utilized low level APIs on Android based mobile devices, to securely access NFC tags such as MIFARE. Simple touch of NFC enabled mobile devices can benefit both the patient as well as the medical doctors by providing a fast and secure health flow. It can also provide portability of devices and usability for health management in emergency situation, overpopulated hospitals and remote locations.

Keywords:
Android based mobile devices, NFC, Bluetooth interfaces, secure element (SE), Electronic Health Record (EHR), NFC P2P Mode, MIFARE.


References:

1.        Vedat Coskun, Busra Ozdenizci and Kerem Ok, ”A Survey on Near Field Communication (NFC) Technology”, J. Wireless Personal Communications: An International Journal, vol. 71, pp. 2259-2294, 2013.
2.        M. Roland and .I. Langer, ”Digital Signature Records for the NFC Data Exchange Fonnat”, IEEE Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC), pp, 71-76, 2010.

3.        Ryan W. Gardner, Sujata Garera, Matthew W. Pagano, Matthew Green, and Aviel D. Rubin, ”Securing medical records on smart phones”, Proceedings of the first ACM workshop on Security and privacy in medical and home-care systems, pp. 31-40,2009.

4.        Lahtela, A., Hassinen, M.and .Iylha, V., ”RFID and NFC in healthcare: Safety of hospitals medication care”, IEEE proceedings on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare, pp. 241-244, 2008.

5.        Saroj Kumar Panigrahy, Sanjay Kumar .lena, and Ashok Kumar Turuk, ”Security in Bluetooth, RPID and wireless sensor networks”, ACM Proceedings on 2011 International Conference on Communication, Computing Security, pp. 628-633,2011.

6.        Sebastian Dunnebeil, Felix Kobler, Philip Koene, .Ian Marco Leimeister, and Helmut Krcmar, ”Encrypted NFC Emergency Tags Based on the German Telematics Infrastructure”, IEEE proceedings on Near Field Communication (NFC), 2011 3rd International Workshop, pp. 50- 55.IEEE Press, 2011.

7.        Adam Marcusˆo Guido Davidzony, Denise Law, Namrata Venna, Rich Fletcher, Aamir Khanz and Luis Sannenta, ”Using NFC-enabled Mobile Phones for Public Health in Developing Countries”, IEEE Proceedings on First International Workshop.

8.        Divyashikha Sethia, Shantanu .lain and Himadri Kakkar, ”Automated NFC enabled Rural Healthcare for reliable patient record maintenance”, Proceedings of Global Telehealth Conference, vol. 182, pp. 104-113, 2012.

9.        Sasikanth Avancha, Amit Baxi, and David Kotz, ”Privacy in mobile technology for personal healthcare”, ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), vol. 45 Issue I, article 3, 2012.

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7.

Authors:

Nibedita Priyadarshini Mohapatra, Adyasa Mohanty, Prajna Parimita Pradhan, Sasmita Kumari Sahu

Paper Title:

Enhancement of Energy Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network with Improved Communication

Abstract: Wireless sensor network (wsn) is now the center of attraction for most of the research peoples due to its wide range of applications in almost every field. Where human intervention is impossible, wsn was reachable. It has lots of challenges and issues; we wish to solve the energy budget and also try to provide an improved communication in wireless sensor network. Here we proposed an energy efficient model for wsn which was an enhanced energy efficient routing and clustering approach. This model improves the lifetime of the network with enhanced energy efficiency and improved communication. Here we compare our model with existing protocol and by the simulation results we can say our model performs better than the existing model. Here we also propose a Energy saving data gathering method for wsn with less energy consumption and faster data transmission. The simulation results reflect the idea very well. 

Keywords: Sensor network, clustering, routing, energy efficient.


References:

1.        Networking Networking Wireless Sensors by Bhaskar Krishnamachari , 2005.
2.        Wireless Sensor Networks - An Introduction by QinghuaWang and Ilangko Balasingham.

3.        System Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks by Jason Lester Hill, University of California, Berkeley, 2003.

4.        A Survey of Wireless Sensor Networks Technology by I. Khemapech, I. Duncan and A.Miller, School of Computer Science, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews.

5.        Ossama Younis and Sonia Fahmy 2004.Distributed Clustering in Ad-hoc sensor Networks.A Hybrid Energy Efficient Approach. In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM.Hong Kong, an extended version appeared in IEEE Transactions on mobile computing.3 (4).

6.        W. heinzelman, A. Chndrakasan and H. Balakrishnan 2000.Energy Efficient Communication Protocol Wireless Microsensor Networks.Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii international Conference on Syatem Sciences (HICSS’00).

7.        A. Manjeshwar and D. P. Agarwal 2001.TEEN: a routing protocol for enhanced efficiency in wireless sensor networks. In 1st International Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Computing Issues in Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing.

8.        Manjeshwar and D. P. Agarwal 2002. APTEEN: A Hybrid protocol for efficient routing and comprehensive information retrieval in wireless sensor networks. Parallel and Distributed Symphosium, Proceedings International, IPDPS, pp. 195-202. 

9.        Data Fusion Improves the Coverage of Wireless Sensor Networks by Guoliang Xing1; Rui Tan2; Benyuan Liu3; Jianping Wang2;Xiaohua Jia2; Chih-Wei Yi4, 1Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Michigan State University,USA.

10.     Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks –A Survey Shio Kumar Singh 1, M P Singh 2, and D K Singh 3. Routing Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey¤,Jamal N. Al-Karaki Ahmed E.Kamal Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa50011.


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8.

Authors:

P. Gowtham Kumar, P. Chandrasekhar, K. V. R. S. Santhosh

Paper Title:

Study on Dual Band Double Layered Substrate Microstrip Fork Antenna

Abstract: The design of dual band double layered substrate fork shaped microstrip antenna has been proposed. The proposed antenna operates in Ku Band and can be used in satellite communications particularly for editing and broadcasting satellite television. The dimensions of this antenna are 40 x 40 x (h+h1) mm, where h=0.8mm is the thickness of substrate1 and h1=2mm is the thickness of substrate2 and h+h1 is the total thickness of the substrate. FR4 (lossy) material is used as substrate1 and RogersRT6006 (lossy) material is used as substrate2. Copper (annealed) metal is used as both ground plane and the patch. The proposed antenna operates at two frequencies and the frequencies are 14.33 and 13.823GHz. The return losses are -46.319426dB and -40.421846dB at frequencies 14.33 and 13.823GHz. The directivities of the proposed antenna are 8.001 and 7.962dBi at frequencies 14.33 and 13.823GHz.      

Keywords:
Antenna, fork antenna, Dual Band, Double Substrate, Return Loss, VSWR, Directivity.


References:

1.        Constantine A. Balanis, “Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Second Edition, 1997.
2.        Z. Zakaria, W. Y. Sam and  et.al, “Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Based on Resonant Circuit Approach”, IEEE Symposium on Wireless Technology and Applications, September 23-26, 2012, Bandung, Indonesia

3.        Yang F., Xue-Xia Zhang and et.al, “Wide-band E-shaped patch antennas for wireless communications," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propogation, Vol.49, No.7, Jul 2001.

4.        Zahraoui, J. Terhzaz and et.al, “Design and Analysis of a New Dual-Band Microstrip Fractal Antenna”, International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Electronics and Communication Engineering Vol:9, No:1, 2015.

5.        Trupti Ingale , Chaitali Ingale , A.A.Trikolikar , Gunjan Rathore  and P.C.Latane,” Effect of Different Substrate Material on Performance of H Shaped Patch Antenna,” International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, Vol. 2, Issue 11, November 2014.

6.        Ritu, Krishan Sherdia,” Microstrip Antenna Design for UWB Applications,” International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, Vol. 2, Issue 10, October 2013.

7.        Thana Pakkiam .K, JS. Mandeep and M.T Islam,” Design of Microstrip Antenna for Modern Wireless Communication,” 1st IEEE International Symposium on Telecommunication Technologies.

8.        Amit A. Deshmukh, M.Mansi, A.Amrita  and K. P. Ray,” Broadband Proximity fed Equilateral Traingular Microstrip Antenna,” 2012 International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communications.


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